Tainan City is located in the southwest of Taiwan and lies on the rich and fertile Jianan Plain. It has a population of 1,881,645 people. The Taiwan Strait and Penghu (in the Taiwan Strait) are to its west. Cieding and Hunei townships of Kaohsiung County are to the south across the Erhjen River. The 37 administrative districts within the city are: East District, North District, Central-West District, Annan District, Anping District, Yongkang District, Guiren District, Sinhua District, zuojhen District, Yujing District, Nansi District, Nanhua District, Rende District, Guanmiao District, Longci District, Guantian District, Madou District, Jiali District, Sigang District, Cigu District, Jiangju District, Syuejia District, Beimen District, Sinying District, Houbi District, Baihe District, Dongshan District, Liujia District, Siaying District, Liouying District, Yanshuei District, Shanhua District, Da-nei District, Sinshih District, and Anding District. The total area of the city is 2,191.6531 km2, which is about 6.09% of the total land area of Taiwan. The Yanshuei River traverses the North and Annan districts, running from east to west and entering the Taiwan Strait in Anping. After the establishment of direct-controlled municipality, those 37 districts will be integrated into 16 districts: East District, North District, Central-West District, Annan District, Anping District, Yongkang District, Sinying District, Baihe District, Jiali District, Beimen District, Sinhua District, Yujing District, Zengwun District, Nanke District, and Sinfong District.
Tainan has a long coastline in the west next to the Taiwan Strait. Landscapes along this nearly 70km long coastline are rich and varied. The northern coastline of the city is located in the Sihcao Wetlands in the northwest of the Yanshuei River. As the area is covered with a rare mangrove forest, it has become a bird watcher’s paradise. Statistics indicate that over one million birds of all kinds live in the Sihcao Wetlands. These include over 20 endangered species of migratory birds from other parts of Asia and Australia, and over half of the 400 species of wild birds native to Taiwan.
Another characteristic of Tainan is abundant water resource that provides 40% of water supply in Taiwan, and contribute to city in the development of agriculture and high-tech electronics industry which needs high water demand. Furthermore, Tseng Wen Reservoir is the biggest reservoir, which traverses Chianan plain. Other well-known reservoirs are Wushantou Reservoir and Hutou Pi.